Brain cytokines and disease.

Abstract

Cytokines (e.g. various interleukins and subfamily members, tumor necrosis factors, interferons, chemokines and growth factors) act in the brain as immunoregulators and neuromodulators. Over a decade ago, the integrative article 'Immunoregulators in the Nervous System' (Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1991; 15: 185-215) provided a comprehensive framework of pivotal issues on cytokines and the nervous system that recently have been extensively studied. Cytokine profiles in the brain, including cytokine generation and action, have been studied in multiple models associated with neuropathophysiological conditions. These include: (1) acute conditions and disorders such as stroke (cerebral ischemia or infarction and intracranial hemorrhage), traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury and acute neuropathies; (2) chronic neurodegenerative disorders and chronic conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy and chronic neuropathies; (3) brain infections, including bacterial meningitis and encephalitis; (4) brain tumors; (5) neuroimmunological disorders per se, such as multiple sclerosis; (5) psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression; (6) neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with non- central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as peripheral cancer, liver, kidney and metabolic compromise, and peripheral infectious and inflammatory conditions; and (7) cytokine immunotherapy, which can be accompanied by neuropsychiatric manifestations when administered either via peripheral or brain routes. Cytokine profiles have also been studied in multiple animal models challenged with inflammatory, infectious, chemical, malignant and stressor insults. Essentially data show that cytokines play a pivotal role in multiple neuropathophysiological processes associated with different types of disorders and insults. Cytokine expression and action in the brain shows a different profile across conditions, but some similarities exist. Under a defined temporal sequence, cytokine involvement in neuroprotection or the induction of a deleterious pathophysiological cascade and in resolution/healing is proposed depending on the type of cytokine. In the brain, functional interactions among cytokines, balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and functional interactions with neurotransmitters and neuropeptides play a pivotal role in the overall cytokine profile, pattern of neuropathophysiological cascades, and quality and magnitude of neuropsychiatric manifestations. In this brief review various selected cytokine-related issues with relevance to the brain are discussed.

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